ASTM A213/ASME SA213 for Boiler Heat-Exchanger Pipes

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ASTM A213/ASME SA213 Standard Specification for
Seamless Ferritic and Austenitic Alloy-Steel Boiler, Superheater, and Heat-Exchanger Tubes
 

1. Scope*
1.1 This specification covers seamless ferritic and austenitic steel boiler, superheater, and heat-exchanger tubes, designated Grades T5, TP304, etc. These steels are listed in Tables 1 and 2.
1.2 Grades containing the letter, H, in their designation,have requirements different from those of similar grades not containing the letter, H. These different requirements provide higher creep-rupture strength than normally achievable in similar grades without these different requirements.
1.3 The tubing sizes and thicknesses usually furnished to this specification are 1 ⁄ 8 in. [3.2 mm] in inside diameter to 5 in [127 mm] in outside diameter and 0.015 to 0.500 in. [0.4 to 12.7 mm], inclusive, in minimum wall thickness or, if specified in the order, average wall thickness. Tubing having other diameters may be furnished, provided such tubes comply with all other requirements of this specification.
1.4 The values stated in either SI units or inch-pound units are to be regarded separately as standard. Within the text, the SI units are shown in brackets. The values stated in each system may not be exact equivalents; therefore, each system shall be used independently of the other. Combining values from the two systems may result in non-conformance with the standard. The inch-pound units shall apply unless the “M” designation of this specification is specified in the order.
 
 
2. Referenced Documents
2.1 ASTM Standards:
A262 Practices for Detecting Susceptibility to Intergranular Attack in Austenitic Stainless Steels
A941 Terminology Relating to Steel, Stainless Steel, Related Alloys, and Ferroalloys
A1016/A1016M Specification for General Requirements for Ferritic Alloy Steel, Austenitic Alloy Steel, and Stainless Steel Tubes
E112 Test Methods for Determining Average Grain Size
 
2.2 AWS Specifications
A5.5/A5.5M Specification for Low-Alloy Steel Electrodes for Shielded Metal Arc Welding
A5.23/A5.23M Specification for Low-Alloy Steel Electrodes and Fluxes for Submerged Arc Welding
A5.28/A5.28M Specification for Low-Alloy Steel Electrodes for Gas Shielded Arc Welding
A5.29/A5.29M Low-Alloy Steel Electrodes for Flux Cored Arc Welding

 ASTM A213/ASME SA213 Standard Specification for Exchanger Tubes

3. Terminology
3.1 Definitions—For definitions of terms used in this specification, refer to Terminology A941.
 

4. Ordering Information
4.1 It shall be the responsibility of the purchaser to specify all requirements that are necessary for products under this specification. Such requirements to be considered include, but are not limited to, the following:
4.1.1 Quantity (feet, metres, or number of lengths),
4.1.2 Name of material (seamless tubes),
4.1.3 Grade (Tables 1 and 2),
4.1.4 Condition (hot finished or cold finished),
4.1.5 Controlled structural characteristics (see 6.3),
4.1.6 Size (outside diameter and minimum wall thickness, unless average wall thickness is specified),
4.1.7 Length (specific or random),
4.1.8 Hydrostatic Test or Nondestructive Electric Test (see 10.1),
4.1.9 Specification designation and year of issue,
4.1.10 Increased sulfur (for machinability, see Note B, Table 1, and 16.3),
4.1.11 Special requirements and any supplementary requirements selected.
 
 
5. General Requirements
5.1 Product furnished to this specification shall conform to the requirements of Specification A1016/A1016M, including any supplementary requirements that are indicated in the purchase order. Failure to comply with the general requirements of Specification A1016/A1016M constitutes nonconformance with this specification. In case of conflict between the requirements of this specification and Specification A1016/ A1016M, this specification shall prevail.
 

6. Materials and Manufacture
6.1 Manufacture and Condition—Tubes shall be made by the seamless process and shall be either hot finished or cold finished, as specified. Grade TP347HFG shall be cold finished.
6.2 Heat Treatment:
6.2.1 Ferritic Alloy and Ferritic Stainless Steels—The ferritic alloy and ferritic stainless steels shall be reheated for heat treatment in accordance with the requirements of Table 3. Heat treatment shall be carried out separately and in addition to heating for hot forming.
6.2.2 Austenitic Stainless Steels—All austenitic tubes shall be furnished in the heat-treated condition, and shall be heat treated in accordance with the requirements of Table 3. Alternatively, immediately after hot forming, while the temperature of the tubes is not less than the minimum solution treatment temperature specified in Table 3, tubes may be individually quenched in water or rapidly cooled by other means (direct quenched).
6.3 If any controlled structural characteristics are required, these shall be so specified in the order as to be a guide as to the most suitable heat treatment.
 
 
7. Chemical Composition
7.1 Composition Requirements:
7.1.1 The alloy steels shall conform to the chemical requirements given in Table 1.
7.1.2 The stainless steels shall conform to the chemical requirements given in Table 2.
 
7.2 Product Analysis:
7.2.1 An analysis of either one billet or one tube shall be made from each heat. The chemical composition thus determined shall conform to the requirements specified.
7.2.2 If the original test for product analysis fails, retests of two additional billets or tubes shall be made. Both retests, for the elements in question, shall meet the requirements of the specification; otherwise all remaining material in the heat shall be rejected or, at the option of the producer, each billet or tube may be individually tested for acceptance. Billets or tubes that do not meet the requirements of the specification shall be rejected.
 
 
Table 1 Chemical Composition For Low Alloy Steel
 
Grade Chemical Composition(%)
C Mn P S Si Cr Mo V N Ni Al Nb W B
T2 0.10-0.20 0.30-0.61 ≤0.025 ≤0.025 0.10-0.30 0.50-0.81 0.44-0.65 ... ... ... ... ... ... ...
T5 ≤0.15 0.30-0.60 ≤0.025 ≤0.025 ≤0.50 4.00-6.00 0.45-0.65 ... ... ... ... ... ... ...
T9 ≤0.15 0.30-0.60 ≤0.025 ≤0.025 ≤0.50 4.00-6.00 0.45-0.65 ... ... ... ... ... ... ...
T11 0.05-0.15 0.30-0.60 ≤0.025 ≤0.025 ≤0.50 4.00-6.00 0.45-0.65 ... ... ... ... ... ... ...
T12 0.05-0.15 0.30-0.60 ≤0.025 ≤0.025 ≤0.50 0.80-1.25 0.45-0.65 ... ... ... ... ... ... ...
T22 0.05-0.15 0.30-0.60 ≤0.025 ≤0.025 ≤0.50 1.90-2.60 0.87-1.13 ... ... ... ... ... ... ...
T23 0.04-0.10 0.1-0.6 ≤0.03 ≤0.01 ≤0.5 1.9-2.6 0.05-0.3 0.2-0.3 ≤0.03 ... ≤0.03 0.02-0.08 1.45-1.75 0.0005-0.006
T91 0.07-0.14 0.3-0.6 ≤0.02 ≤0.01 0.2-0.5 8.0-9.5 0.85-1.05 0.18-0.25 0.03-0.07 ≤0.4 ≤0.04 0.06-0.10 ... ...
T92 0.07-0.13 0.3-0.6 ≤0.02 ≤0.01 ≤0.5 8.5-9.5 00.3-0.6 0.15-0.25 0.03-0.07 ≤0.4 ≤0.04 0.04-0.09 1.5-2.0 0.001-0.006
 
 
 
8. Grain Size
8.1 Grain size shall be as given in Table 3, as determined in accordance with Test Methods E112.
8.2 Grain size determinations, to demonstrate compliance with 8.1, shall be made on one end of one finished tube from each lot. See 15.1.
 
TABLE 3 Heat Treatment and Grain Size Requirements
 
Grade UNS
Number
Heat Treat Type Austenitizing/ Solutioning Temperature,
min or range ºF [ºC]
Cooling Media Subcritical Annealing or Tempering Temperature,
min or range ºF [ºC]
 
 ASTM
Grain S
Ferritic Alloy Steels
T2 K11547 full or isothermal anneal
    normalize and temper
    subcritical anneal 1200 to 1350
          [650 to 730]  
T5 K41545 full or isothermal anneal
    normalize and temper 1250 [675]
T5b K51545 full or isothermal anneal
    normalize and temper 1250 [675]
T5c K41245 subcritical anneal air or furnace 1350 [730]C
T9 S50400 full or isothermal anneal
    normalize and temper 1250 [675]
T11 K11597 full or isothermal anneal
    normalize and temper 1200 [650]
T12 K11562 full or isothermal anneal
    normalize and temper
    subcritical anneal 1200 to 1350
          [650 to 730]  
T17 K12047 full or isothermal anneal
    normalize and temper 1200 [650]
T21 K31545 full or isothermal anneal
    normalize and temper 1250 [675]
T22 K21590 full or isothermal anneal
    normalize and temper   1250 [675]
T23 K40712 normalize and temper 1900–1975
[1040–1080]
1350–1470 [730–800]
T24 K30736 normalize and tempher 1800–1975
[980–1080]
1350–1470 [730–800]
T36 K21001 normalize and temper 1650 [900] D 1100 [595]
T91 K90901 normalize and temper 1900–1975
[1040–1080]
1350–1470 [730–800]
T92 K92460 normalize and temper 1900–1975
[1040–1080]
1350–1470 [730–800]
T122 K91261 normalize and temper 1900–1975
[1040–1080]
1350–1470 [730–800]
T911 K91061 normalize and temper 1900–1975
[1040–1080]
E 1365–1435
 
 
 
9. Mechanical Properties
9.1 Tensile Requirements:
9.1.1 The material shall conform to the requirements as to tensile properties given in Table 4.
 
TABLE 4 Tensile and Hardness Requirements
 
Low Alloy Steels
Grade
 
UNS
Designation
 
Tensile
Strength,
min, ksi
[MPa]
 
Yield
Strength,
min, ksi
[MPa]
 
Elongation
in 2 in. or
50 mm,
min, %
 
Hardness 
Brinell/Vickers Rockwell
T5b K51545 60 [415] 30 [205] 30 179 HBW/
190HV
89 HRB
T9 K90941 60 [415] 30 [205] 30 179 HBW/
190HV
89 HRB
T12 K11562 60 [415] 32 [220] 30 163 HBW/
170 HV
85 HRB
T23 K40712 74 [510] 58 [400] 20 220 HBW/
230 HV
97 HRB
T24 K30736 85 [585] 60 [415] 20 250 HBW/
265 HV
25 HRC
T36 Class 1 K21001 90 [620] 64 [440] 15 250 HBW/
265 HV
25 HRC
T36 Class 2 K21001 95.5 [660] 66.5 [460] 15 250 HBW/
265 HV
25 HRC
T91 K90901 85 [585] 60 [415] 20 190 to 250 HBW/
196 to 265 HV
90 HRB to 25
HRC
T92 K92460 90 [620] 64 [440] 20 250 HBW/
265 HV
25 HRC
T122 K91271 90 [620] 58 [400] 20 250 HBW/
265 HV
25 HRC
T911 K91061 90 [620] 64 [440] 20 250 HBW/
265 HV
25 HRC
All other low alloy
grades
  60 [415] 30 [205] 30 163 HB/
170 HV
85 HRB
 
 
 
 
9.1.2 Table 5 gives the computed minimum elongation values for each 1 ⁄ 32 -in. [0.8-mm] decrease in wall thickness.Where the wall thickness lies between two values shown in Table 5, the minimum elongation value shall be determined by the following equations. For Grades T23, T24, T91, T92, T122, T911, and S44400: E = 32t + 10.00 [E = 1.25t + 10.00]. For Grade T36: E = 32t + 5.0 [E = 1.25t + 5.0]. For all other ferritic alloy grades: E = 48t + 15.00 [ E = 1.87t + 15.00].
where:
E = elongation in 2 in. [50 mm], %, and
t = actual thickness of specimen, in. [mm].
 
TABLE 5 Computed Minimum Values
 
Wall Thickness  Elongation in 2 in.
or 50 mm, min, %  
in. mm S44400,
T23, T24, T91,
T92, T122, and
T911
T 36 All Other
Ferritic Grades
5 ⁄ 16 [0.312] 8 20 15 30
9 ⁄ 32 [0.281] 7.2 19 14 29
1 ⁄ 4 [0.250] 6.4 18 13 27
7 ⁄ 32 [0.219] 5.6 17 12 26
3 ⁄ 16 [0.188] 4.8 16 11 24
5 ⁄ 32 [0.156] 4 15 10 23
1 ⁄ 8 [0.125] 3.2 14 9 21
3 ⁄ 32 [0.094 2.4 13 8 20
1 ⁄ 16 [0.062] 1.6 12 7 18
0.062 to 0.035, exc  1.6 to 0.9 12 7 17
0.035 to 0.022, exc  0.9 to 0.6 11 6 17
0.022 to 0.015 incl 0.6 to 0.4 11 6 16
 
 
9.1.3 One tension test shall be made on a specimen from one tube for lots of not more than 50 tubes. Tension tests shall be made on specimens from two tubes for lots of more than 50 tubes. See 15.2.
9.2 Hardness Requirements:
9.2.1 The material shall conform to the hardness requirements given in Table 4. See 15.2.
9.2.2 Brinell, Vickers, or Rockwell hardness tests shall be made on specimens from two tubes from each lot. See 15.2.
9.3 Flattening Test—One flattening test shall be made on specimens from each end of one finished tube, not the one used for the flaring test, from each lot. See 15.1.
9.4 Flaring Test—One flaring test shall be made on specimens from each end of one finished tube, not the one used for the flattening test, from each lot. See 15.1.
9.5 Mechanical property requirements do not apply to tubing smaller than 1 ⁄ 8in. [3.2 mm] in inside diameter or thinner than 0.015 in. [0.4 mm] in thickness.
 
 
10. Hydrostatic or Nondestructive Electric Test
10.1 Each tube shall be subjected to the nondestructive electric test or the hydrostatic test. The type of test to be used shall be at the option of the manufacturer, unless otherwise specified in the purchase order.
 

11. Forming Operations
11.1 Tubes, when inserted in a boiler or tube sheet, shall stand expanding and beading without showing cracks or flaws. Superheater tubes when properly manipulated shall stand all forging, welding, and bending operations necessary for application without developing defects. See Note 1.
N OTE 1—Certain of the ferritic steels covered by this specification will harden if cooled rapidly from above their critical temperature. Some will air harden, that is, become hardened to an undesirable degree when cooled in air from high temperatures, particularly chromium-containing steels with chromium of 4 % and higher. Therefore, operations that involve heating such steels above their critical temperatures, such as welding,flanging, and hot bending, should be followed by suitable heat treatment.
 

12. Repair by Welding
12.1 Repair welding shall be performed in conformance with Specification A1016/A1016M.
12.2 All repair welds in T91 shall be made with one of the following welding processes and consumables: SMAW, A5.5/ A5.5M E90XX-B9; SAW, A5.23/A5.23M EB9 + neutral flux; GTAW,A5.28/A5.28M ER90S-B9; and FCAWA5.29/A5.29M E91T1-B9. In addition, the sum of the Ni+Mn content of all welding consumables used to weld repair T91 shall not exceed 1.0 %.
12.3 All repair welds in T92, T911, and T122, shall be made using welding consumables meeting the chemical requirements for the grade in Table 1.
 
 
 
13. Permissible Variations from the Specified Wall Thickness
13.1 Permissible variations from the specified minimum wall thickness shall be in accordance with Specification A1016/A1016M.
13.2 Permissible variations from the specified average wall thickness shall be 6 10 % of the specified average wall thickness for cold formed tubes and, unless otherwise specified by the purchaser, shall be in accordance with Table 6 for hot formed tubes.
 
TABLE 6 Permitted Variations in Average Wall Thickness for Hot Formed Tubes
 
NPS [DN] Designator Tolerance in %, from specified
Over Under
1 ⁄ 8 to 2 1 ⁄ 2 [6 to 65]
incl, all t/D ratios
20 12.5
Above 2 1 ⁄ 2 [65], t/D ≤5 % 22.5 12.5
Above 2 1 ⁄ 2 [65], t/D >5 % 15 12.5
 

 
14. Surface Condition
14.1 Ferritic alloy cold-finished steel tubes shall be free of scale and suitable for inspection. A slight amount of oxidation is not considered scale.
14.2 Ferritic alloy hot-finished steel tubes shall be free of loose scale and suitable for inspection.
14.3 Stainless steel tubes shall be pickled free of scale.When bright annealing is used, pickling is not necessary.
14.4 Any special finish requirement shall be subject to agreement between the supplier and the purchaser.


15. Sampling
15.1 For flattening, flaring, and grain size requirements, the term lot applies to all tubes, prior to cutting, of the same size (see 4.1.6) that are produced from the same heat of steel. When final heat treatment is in a batch-type furnace, a lot shall include only those tubes of the same size and from the same heat that are heat treated in the same furnace charge. When the final heat treatment is in a continuous furnace or when the heat-treated condition is obtained directly by quenching after hot forming, the number of tubes of the same size and from the same heat in a lot shall be determined from the size of the tubes as prescribed in Table 7.
 
TABLE 7 Number of Tubes in a Lot Heat Treated by the Continuous Process or by Direct Quench After Hot Forming
 
Size of Tube Size of Lot
2 in. [50.8 mm] and over in outside diameter and 0.200 in. [5.1 mm] and over in wall thickness not more than 50 tubes
2 in. [50.8 mm] and over in outside diameter and
under 0.200 in. [5.1 mm] in wall thickness
not more than 75 tubes
Less than 2 in. [50.8 mm] but over 1 in.
[25.4 mm] in outside diameter
not more than 75 tubes
1 in. [25.4 mm] or less in outside diameter not more than 125 tubes
 
 
15.2 For tensile and hardness test requirements, the term lot applies to all tubes prior to cutting, of the same size (see4.1.6)
that are produced from the same heat of steel. When final heat treatment is in a batch-type furnace, a lot shall include only those tubes of the same size and the same heat that are heat treated in the same furnace charge. When the final heat treatment is in a continuous furnace, or when the heat-treated condition is obtained directly by quenching after hot forming,a lot shall include all tubes of the same size and heat, heat treated in the same furnace at the same temperature, time at heat, and furnace speed; or all tubes of the same size and heat, hot formed and quenched in the same production run, except as prescribed in 9.1.3.
 


16. Product Marking
16.1 In addition to the marking prescribed in Specification A1016/A1016M, the marking shall include: the condition, hot finished or cold finished; and the wall designation, minimum wall or average wall.
16.2 For the austenitic stainless steels having a grain size requirement (see Table 3) the marking shall also include the heat number and heat-treatment lot identification.
16.3 When either T2 or T12 are ordered with higher sulfur contents as permitted by Note B of Table 1, the marking shall include the letter, S, following the grade designation: T2S or T12S.
 


17. Keywords
17.1 alloy steel tubes; austenitic stainless steel; boiler tubes; ferritic stainless steel; heat exchanger tubes; high-temperature applications; seamless steel tubes; steel tubes; superheater tubes; temperature service applications-high
.

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